Codewarrior Mac

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  2. Aug 04, 1997  CodeWarrior will soon support the Mac OS 8 Appearance Manager by creating new classes in PowerPlant for using the new interface controls, which include sliders, progress bars, group boxes, pop-up menu buttons, bevel buttons, and image wells. Existing PowerPlant grayscale classes are.
  3. CodeWarrior embedded software development studio is a complete integrated development environment (IDE) that provides a highly visual and automated framework to accelerate development of the most complex embedded applications.

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TechInfo.The process is composed of two major steps:Porting to CodeWarrior is by far the biggest job. If porting toCodeWarrior takes more work than PowerPC specific changes it may notseem worth it to undertake the effort. However, porting to CodeWarriorrequires you to clean up your C code and bring it up to the ANSIstandard. CodeWarrior is a stricter compiler than MPW. Hence portingto CodeWarrior is an important process because making the code ANSIstandard is one of the requirements for porting to the PowerPC. Makingyour code stricter will ensure that it behaves as expected and willavoid possible bugs.

CodeWarrior comes with the Universal Header files from Apple. This is a new set ofheader files that provide access to the toolbox in a way that iscompatible with both the 68K and PPC. Converting your program to usethe Universal Header files is another step that CodeWarrior makes you dothat is ultimately necessary to port your program to the PowerMacintosh.

Porting to CodeWarrior

Modifying your code to compile with CodeWarrior 68K requires many of thechanges needed to compile with CodeWarrior PPC. The changes can bebroken down into several type:

ANSI Compliance

The first changes to make to your code are to make it ANSI compliant.MPW is much more lax about what it allows than CodeWarrior is. You cantell CodeWarrior to give you many types of warnings. If your code isold or was compiled with MPW you may need to add function prototypes. Isuggest turning on the 'Require Function Prototypes' option in the'Language' section of the preferences. This will require that everyfunction has a prototype. Here is an example of a correct functionprototype:

int mk_ticket(KTEXT ktext, char *server_name);

There are a few features to note about this prototype. First itexplicity returns int. Always declare the returntype. Do not assume that if you don't then the procedure will returnint. Many of the procedures in TechInfo that didn't havean explicitly returned type didn't return anything. CodeWarriorcomplained because they were supposed to return ints butdidn't return anything. This was a warning that MPW didn't catch. Ichanged these to return void. For example, I changed thisprototype (and the corresponding function call:

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void cmd_open_document(void);

This prevents statements such as the following (imaginary) one:

result = cmd_open_document();

The other important feature of the prototype is that it uses new-styleargument declarations. By putting KTEXT ktext andchar *server_name in the argument list, the compiler cando better type checking and register allocation. It may even uncovererrors.

Prototyping all of your functions may cause additional complications.The first argument to mk_ticket is of typeKTEXT, which is defined in krb.h. Consequently krb.h mustbe #included before the function prototype. In TechInfoall of the prototypes are in one header, prototype.h. krb.h must be#included before prototype.h or inside of it. This mayuncover other conflicts between newly #included headers orheaders and source files.

Besides declaring all of your functions before using them, removeillegal code. CodeWarrior will catch this code. An example ofcode that CodeWarrior disagrees with is:

(long)select_node = GetWRefCon(window);

An expression with a cast is not an lvalue. However all assignmentexpressions require an lvalue as the left operand. This expressioncan be fixed by type casting the result of GetWRefCon tomatch select_node's type. The proper expression is:

select_node = (Handle)GetWRefCon(window);

Another problem that might occur when you move to CodeWarrior isredefined macros. MPW prior to version 3.3 allowed macros to beredefined. Version 3.3 allows macros to be redefined if they arebeing redefined to the same thing. CodeWarrior doesn't allow macrosto be redefined. TRUE and FALSE are oftendefined. I wrapped these in #ifndef's to preventredefinition.

It's quite possible you will encounter other irregularities in thecode you are porting. There are some subtle implementationdifferences between MPW and CodeWarrior.

MPW swaps the ASCII value of 'r' and 'n'. It does this because theMac uses 'r' to break lines but 'n' is commonly used for new lines instandard C library routines such as printf. CodeWarrior'sANSI libraries translate 'n' as far as I can tell. You could swap allof your 'n's to 'r' but then your code wouldn't work after beingcompiled by MPW. There are two solutions to this problem. One is toturn on 'MPW Newlines' in the 'Languages' section of the preferences.The other is to #define macros, such as CR andLF with the ASCII values of 'n' and 'r'. Inside ofstrings use the octal value (e.g. 'foo012').

Another implementation difference is the size of int. InMPW and CodeWarrior PPC int is 4 bytes. In CodeWarrior 68Kit is 2 bytes unless you tell CodeWarrior 68K to use 4 byteints in the 'Processor' section of the preferences. Makesure you tell CodeWarrior that ints are 4 bytes if youdepend on this. Ideally you should only use ints when youdon't care how big int is and long andshort when you do.

Universal Headers

The Universal Headers require some changes to your code. The changescan be broken down into three major parts:

Obsolete Toolbox Calls

Several toolbox calls are obsolete. If you try to compile your programand a prototype is lacking for a toolbox call, it's quite possible thatthe call is now obsolete. TechInfo used to use GetAppParmsto get its name and resource reference number. I had to replace thiscall with a call to get the low memory global that contains theapplication's name and a call to CurResFile. The call toCurResFile has to be made at the beginning of the programwhile the application is still the current resource file. Otherobsolete calls are CountAppFiles andGetAppFiles. These calls are needed for System 6applications but they are obsolete on the PowerPC. To maintain a commoncode base it is a good idea to remove these from the 68K code. If youreally want to use obsolete calls you need to #define OBSOLETE1. It is #defined as 1 if you are using CodeWarrior68K, so obsolete calls won't be caught until you try to compile for thePPC unless you modify MacHeaders.c in the MacHeaders directory. There'sa line in that file that defines OBSOLETE to be 1 if thecompiler is not a PPC compiler. Comment this line out and re-precompileMacHeaders68K to have the obsolete calls caught by the 68K compiler.Other obsolete calls are GetTrapAddress,SetTrapAddress, and ClrAppFiles.

Low Memory Globals

You should not access low memory globals directly on the Power Mac. ThePower Mac architecture is different from the 680x0 architecture so thereis no guarantee that the low memory globals will even exist. Apple hasremoved the SysEqu.h header file, which contained the names of theglobals, and replaced it with LowMem.h. LowMem.h contains accessor andsetter functions for the low memory globals. For example, TechInfo usedthe WindowList low memory global but was modified tocall LMGetWindowList(). If you use low memoryglobals the compiler will generate errors, first because SysEqu.h can'tbe found, and, once you remove the #include for it, becauseit won't recognize the globals. You'll need to #includeLowMem.h and replace the globals with LMGet* andLMSet* calls.

Universal Procedure Pointers

The biggest change you will need to make are to ProcPtrs, the procedurepointers that are passed to toolbox calls. For instance, TechInfo callsModalDialog with a ModalFilterProcPtr. Ifyour program is running on a Power Mac, ModalDialog doesnot know if the filter procedure is 68K code or PPC code because thePower Mac can execute both. Consequently you cannot simply pass yourprocedure's pointer because you have to indicate what kind ofinstruction set it was compiled for. Apple has created a structurecalled RoutineDescriptor which describes the callingconvention for a procedure and also the CPU it was compiled for. Apointer to a routine descriptor is called a Universal Procedure Pointer(UPP). Instead of passing a pointer to your callback routine, you needto pass a UPP. If you are compiling for the 68K a UPP is simply aProcPtr. If you are compiling for the PPC it is a pointer to a routinedescriptor. You do not have to worry about which it will be because thatis abstracted away using macros. Always use UPPs and the compiler willdo the right thing.

There are several ways to create routine descriptors. A routinedescriptor requires about 32 bytes of nonrelocatable memory. If youallocate it in the heap during runtime you might fragment memory. Oneway to avoid this is to allocate your routine descriptors on the stackas global variables. There is a macro in MixedMode.h that willaccomplish this. TechInfo has a procedure calleddlog_login that prompts a provider for his/her username andpassword. It wants to pass the procedure GetIdFilter toModalDialog. ModalDialog wants a UPP, in thiscase a UPP of type ModalDialogUPP. Here's how to createthe routine descriptor on the stack:

RoutineDescriptor gGetIdFilterRD = BUILD_ROUTINE_DESCRIPTOR(uppModalDialogProcInfo, GetIdFilter);

BUILD_ROUTINE_DESCRIPTOR is simply a macro that expands into aRoutineDescriptor structure.

The other way to create a routine descriptor is dynamically on theheap. You should allocate your routine descriptors at applicationstartup because they are not relocatable. Apple has provided aroutine, NewRoutineDescriptor, that takes a procedure,procedure calling information, and the CPU type the procedure wascompiled for. This routine returns a UniversalProcPtr,which is a pointer to a routine descriptor. The Universal Headerscontain many macros to create specific UPPs. Instead of callingNewRoutineDescriptor, here is how TechInfo creates a UPPfor GetIdFilter:

ModalFilterUPP gGetIdFilter;

gGetIdFilterUPP = NewModalFilterProc(GetIdFilter);

The macro calls NewRoutineDescriptor with the correctcalling convention and CPU specified. You can look in the appropriateheader to find the macro that will create the kind of UPP that youneed. Notice that the UPP is a global variable. TechInfo has afunction in main.c called InitRoutineDescriptors that iscalled at startup. InitRoutineDescriptors calls routinesin other files, such as dialogMgr.c, that create UPPs for the routinesin the respective files. The routine in dialogMgr.c,dlog_init_upps, sets gGetIdFilterUPP asshown above, so gGetIdFilterUPP needs to be global sothat it can be used in dlog_login.

Now that the RoutineDescriptor has been created it can bepassed to ModalDialog in place of theModalFilterProcPtr. Here is how to use theRoutineDescriptor:

ModalDialog((ModalFilterUPP)&gGetIdFilterRD, &itemHit);

If you created a UPP, here is how to use it:

ModalDialog(gGetIdFilterUPP, &itemHit);

Sometimes you might not be able to create allocate a UPP dynamically atapplication startup. For example, when I ported the BSD library, therewas no routine that I could count on being called at application startuptime so I allocated the UPP local to the procedure that needed it.After I was done with it I disposed of it using the functionDisposeRoutineDescriptor, which takes a UPP as itsargument:

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You have to be careful not to dispose of a UPP prematurely, for exampleif you pass it to an asynchronous routine.

You cannot directly call a UniversalProcPtr like you would a ProcPtrbecause a UniversalProcPtr is not actually a pointer to a procedure.You won't usually need to call a UPP yourself since they are mostly usedas callback routines, but there are times when you might. TechInfoneeds to call one in PascalClikLoop, which is used byTextEdit. The reason why will be covered in the PowerPC section.CallUniversalProc in the Mixed Mode Manager handles modeswitches and executes the routine associated with the UPP.CallUniversalProc takes the UPP, information about thecalling convention for the procedure, and the arguments to theprocedure. As in the case of NewRoutineDescriptor thereare macros in the Universal Headers for each specific kind of UPP.TechInfo directly calls the TEClickLoop hook with theline

CallTEClickLoopProc(oldClickLoop, *(doc->docTE));

When you compile a program that doesn't use the Universal Headers inCodeWarrior, CodeWarrior will catch most of the callback routines thatneed to be replaced with UniversalProcPtrs. One case thatwill not be caught is when you try to put a userItem into a dialog boxusing SetDItem. This case will not be caught because youhave to typedef the ProcPtr for the userItem to a handle. You stillneed to pass a UniversalProcPtr instead of a ProcPtr.

CodeWarrior Specifics

CodeWarrior handles these topics differently than MPW:

Precompiled Headers

One reason MPW is so slow is that it has to compile thousands oflines of header files. CodeWarrior doesn't have to do this because itsupports precompiled headers. The existence of the MacHeaders68K andMacHeadersPPC files is one of the reasons why CodeWarrior issignificantly faster than MPW. MacHeaders* contains many of thecommonly used headers so you will no longer need to#include the header files that are covered by MacHeaders*.You may still wish to if you are not using CodeWarrior, for instance ifyou want the code to compile in CodeWarrior and MPW. In this case youshould #ifndef the #include lines out. Theconstant __MWERKS__ is defined in the CodeWarriorenvironment. You can either #include MacHeaders* in yourcode or set it as the 'Prefix File' in the 'Language' section of thepreferences.

In the case of TechInfo I wanted to precompile other headers besidesthe universal ones. Many of TechInfo's source files#include standard C headers. TechInfo also has its ownlarge headers files that need to be #included by everysource file. One difference between MPW and CodeWarrior is that MPWallows constants to be #defined on the command line. MPWalso #defines constants that aren't #definedby CodeWarrior. To deal with this, I created a header for TechInfo,TI.includes.pch, that #defines constants,#includes MacHeaders, and #includes otherheader files. This file is precompiled, and the result, TIFast*, is setto the Prefix File.

It is inconvenient to precompile TI.includes.pch every time I change oneof the files that it depends on. CodeWarrior will automaticallyre-precompile any header that ends in .pch if it is added to the projectfile. The same .pch file can be used to generate 68K and PPC version ofthe precompiled header. TI.includes.pch has these lines in it for thatpurpose:

Toolbox Glue

MPW has C glue code to ease the use of C strings with toolbox routines,which expect pascal strings. For example, MPW supports thenumtostring routine, which is just likeNumToString except that it takes a C string. CodeWarriorlacks this routine and a couple others of the same breed, so you willneed to rewrite them if they don't already exist.

Assembly Code

MPW has an assembler that takes care of .asm files. The ClickLooppassed to TextEdit is traditionally written in assembly. The procedureusually saves registers, calls the TextEdit's default ClickLoop, callsthe program's real ClickLoop, restores the registers, and puts a 1 inregister D0. CodeWarrior doesn't assemble .asm files, but it willassemble asm procedures in C source files. Here isTechInfo's AsmClikLoop, which is in textMgr.c:You only want to assemble this code if you are using CodeWarrior becauseMPW will not understand it. Since this is 68K code, you don't want itassembled by the PowerPC compiler. In fact, CodeWarrior does notcurrently support PPC assembly.

Code Resources

You need to create a new project for each code resource. CodeWarriorcan handle multisegment resources but I won't go into that becauseTechInfo doesn't use them. In the preference section 'Project' set theProject Type to 'Code Resource'. Then give the file to put the coderesource into, the type of code resource, and its resource ID. You canhave CodeWarrior prompt you for the location to save the resource byselecting the 'Display Dialog' check box. If you select the 'Merge ToFile' check box the code resource will be added to the file instead ofreplacing it. TechInfo merges all of its code resources into one file.Make sure the Code Model in the 'Processor' preferences is set to'Small.' A code resource cannot use the large model. If you cannot fitthe code resource into the small model you will need to create amultisegment one.Codewarrior

Unlike MPW, you cannot specify the entrance procedure to the coderesource. You have to name it main.

Application Resources

The usual way to create resources for an application being created byMPW is to specify them in a .r file and run Rez on the .r file to createand merge the resource into the application. I create and modifyresources using ResEdit, so I have to DeRez my changes and add them tothe .r file. It is easier to skip the DeRez step and just merge theresources created or modified by ResEdit into the application.

It is much easier to use resource files in CodeWarrior than it is to use.r files for the reason stated above and because CodeWarrior does notautomatically run Rez on .r files. You can simply add a file withresources in it to your project, and the resources will be added to yourapplication when it is built. If you wanted to store your resources in.r files, you would have to use ToolServer, which CodeWarrior cancontrol, to run Rez. If you choose to use a resource file and not useRez, you will still need a .r file for MPW. Instead of having a .r filethat duplicates the resource file, you can create a very simple .r filethat will include the resource file.

Power Macintosh Specific Changes

If you have ported your application to CodeWarrior as described above,being sure to use UPPs, then you've done most of the work required toport an application to the PowerPC. There is very little differencebetween writing a 68K and a PPC program. When writing a PPC program,the biggest problem to worry about is mixed mode switches and that you don't pass PPC code to a procedure expecting68K code or vice versa. This section will discuss these issues that youshould be aware of when porting your CodeWarrior 68K program toCodeWarrior PPC:

Creating a CodeWarrior PPC Project

Once you have a 68K project, you probably don't want to recreate a PPCproject. CodeWarrior PPC can open CodeWarrior 68K projects files, soyou don't have to recreate it. Once you open your 68K project inCodeWarrior PPC, you still have to make some changes. First of all, the68K and PPC projects need different libraries to interface the Macintoshtoolbox. You will need to remove the 68K libraries from the project andreplace them with PPC versions. Instead of MacOS.lib, the PPC projectneeds MWCRuntime.Lib, InterfaceLib, and MathLib.

Codewarrior Mac Os 9

You also need to change some of the preferences. You can set a numberof PPC specific preferences in the 'Processor' panel. The PowerPC likesto have data stored on natural boundaries. A char canstart at any address. A short should start at an evenaddress, and a long should start at an address that is aneven multiple of 4. While this is not necessary it makes memory accessfaster. You can set structures to use this alignment in the 'StructAlignment' popup menu. If you do, be careful not to pass a PPC alignedstruct to a toolbox call. Toolbox calls were written for the 68K andexpect structures aligned for that processor. You don't need to worryabout structures from the Universal Headers; those are alignedcorrectly. If you pass your own you should enclose the structuredefinition in #pragma options align=mac68k and#pragma options align=reset. The other options in the'Processor' panel let you set the level of optimization.

That is about all there is to porting to the Power Mac unless you have68K assembly code in your program.

Assembly Code

CodeWarrior 5 doesn't have a PPC assembler. Apple says that youshouldn't need to write any PowerPC assembly code. The idea behind aRISC architecture is that the compiler can do a better job than you, andthat you should leave assembly up to the compiler. Assembly codedefinitely makes it harder to port your application (even though thereare only two Macintosh platforms right now). Instead of writing inassembly you should program in C. This not being a perfect world,that's not always as easy as it sounds. Assembly is needed to storevalues in specific registers. This amount of control isn't available inC. TechInfo has this problem. As stated above, TechInfo passesAsmClikLoop as its ClickLoop procedure. The reasonTechInfo uses assembly is that TextEdit expects the ClickLoop procedureto put a 1 in register D0. When you are compiling for the PPC, you haveto use a UPP for the ClickLoop. A UPP contains the calling conventionfor a procedure, including where the result of the procedure should bestored. Consequently assembly code isn't needed because the Mixed ModeManager will do the right thing.

Code Resources

To create a code resource, set the project type to 'Code Resources' inthe 'Project' panel of the preferences. You also have to select 'ExpandUninitialized Data' in the 'PEF' panel. In the 'Linker' panel, set the'Main' entry point to 'main.'

Code resources are another case when you don't know if your code isbeing run on a 68K machine or a PPC one. You could just provide a 68Kcode resource, but then it wouldn't run at blazing speeds on aPower Mac. To get both version in one package you need to make a safecode resource. A safe code resource has code to detect which kind ofmachine the code resource is being executed on and runs the correctversion. CodeWarrior 5 can't make safe code resources, but laterversions should. Until they do you'll have to go through thecontortions described here.

TechInfo puts all of its code resources into one file. The 68K versionof its CDEF is resource type 'CDFm' and its PPC version is type 'CDFp'.There is a resource template in MixedMode.r (one of Rez's headers) for aresource type 'sdes', a safe code resource. The 'sdes' templatecontains the code for checking the platform and calling the rightversion of the code resource. This is part of the .r file that TechInfouses to create a safe CDEF:The first two numbers are procedure information for the code resource.Use the ProcInfo project in the CodeWarrior Examples folder to determinethe correct value for this field. Then comes the 68K and PPC versions.This code needs to be compiled with Rez, which will create the safe coderesource.

Fat Binaries

Now that you have a 68K version of your program, a PPC version of yourprogram, and fat code resources, you probably want to merge them intoone and create a fat binary. A fat binary will run native on either a68K Macintosh or a Power Macintosh because it has both versions ofthe program. 68K applications don't use the data fork. All of the codeis stored in 'CODE' resources. PPC code, which is handled by the CodeFragment Manager, can be stored in either the data or the resource fork.PPC applications are stored in the data fork. To make a fat binary allyou have to do is put the PPC program in the data fork, the 68K code inthe resource fork, and the program's resources in the resource fork.Both versions of the program will share the same set of applicationresources.

CodeWarrior makes it easy to create fat binaries. You can include the68K application and the application resources in the PPC version'sproject. When CodeWarrior links the PPC version it will copy theresources from the application and resource files, creating a fatbinary.

References and Further Reading

Macintosh on RISC SDK has a checklist for porting code to thePower Macintosh.

For information on the PowerPC architecture, the Mixed Mode Manager, theCode Fragment Manager, UniversalProcPtrs, and more, see:

'Making the Leap to PowerPC,' by Dave Radcliffe, developIssue 16.

InsideMacintosh: PowerPCSystem Software by Apple Computer, Inc. (Addison-Wesley, 1994).

For information on standalone code and fat resources see:

'Standalone Code on PowerPC,' by Tim Nichols, developIssue 17.

To learn how to speed up your Power Mac code see

'Exploiting Graphics Speed on the Power Macintosh,' by KonstantinOthmer, Shannon Holland, and Brian Cox, developIssue 18.

'Balance of Power: Enhancing PowerPC Native Speed,' by Dave Evans, developIssue 18.


And other 'Balance of Power' columns in developIssue 19, developIssue 20, and developIssue 21 on memory usage, branch prediction, and PPC assembly.

For information on a wide variety of topics concerning the PowerPC, seethe PowerPC feature of MacTech Magazinefrom February 1994 until at least September 1994.

The source forthe entire TechInfo project, including project files and source codemay serve as an example of what was talked about in this document. Youmay also want to read about building TechInfoto see how the fat version of TechInfo is created

Of course, to learn about the real guts of the PowerPC see the PowerPCTechnical Library.

Questions or comments? Send mail to [email protected]
Last updated on $Date: 2003/11/18 21:58:17 $
Last modified by $Author: smcguire $

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